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Copy this page onto a new page in your online notebook. To get an overview of the origins of the Cold War, begin by readingAllies to Enemies: Origins of the Cold War from ABC-CLIO. Use pages 794-799 in Creating America and “The Cold War” research list on ABC-CLIO to develop a complete description for each event or idea from the early years of the Cold War. This information will help set the stage for tomorrow's activity. Use the first entry as an example for detail.

THE YALTA CONFERENCE
  • Meeting near the end of WWII - big 3 meet to discuss post war Europe
  • Germany will be divided, controlled by the Allies
  • Liberated Eastern European countries will have new election
  • United Nations will be formed
  • USSR is given great influence over Eastern Europe, and new government must be "Soviet freindly"
  • the roots of the Cold War are established
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**THE UNITED NATIONS
  • established after Yalta conference to help stabilize interational affairs
  • 5 permanent members- one can veto the other four so not much can be done
  • set up to keep the peace-prevent a future conflict like WWII
  • communism is spreadig, a line is being drawn and developed in Europe- an iron curtain descends
  • Us sees the good and bad guys of Europe
  • Kennan calls for containment

CONTAINMENT**
  • Policy by the United States that is made to prevent the growth of hostile country's territory and limit their ideological influence by political, economic, and diplomatic methods.
  • Containment first put into effect in 1947 and was a response communism.
  • One out of the two key methods in the U.S.'s cold war strategy.
  • Main goal of containment-stop the spread of communism-U.S. will work in military and non-military ways to achieve this goal
  • Containment was especially made by the U.S. in efforts to block the spread of Soviet communism in the late 1940's and early 1950's
  • George F. Kennan (pictured to the right) was a active advocate for the containment polict. He was a historian and U.S. diplomat.
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George Kenean
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**THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE
  • The Truman Doctrine promised financial ($$$$!) aid to people who were struggling to resist threats to democratic freedom.
  • The Doctrine was put into effect to contain the spread of communism around the world, and in that moment, specifically Greece and Turkey.

  • The British were going to stop helping Greece and the UN, even if they did help Greece, would not be able to help them enough.
  • Truman was saying if we don't help Greece and Turkey fight against communism, they will surely fall into that way of government and communistic governments would spread to other parts of Europe.
  • Truman felt that the Soviet Union was directly funding communist forces in Greece and Turkey.
  • Truman was particularly thinking of financial aid for the two countries and succeeded with the Congress granting $400 million to the two countries.
  • Truman Doctrine basis of the Marshall Plan.

THE MARSHALL PLAN
  • The Marshall Plan offered $13 billion to aid in western and southern Europe.
  • The plan help Europe rebuild (with a democrat society).
  • Russia began expanding its foreign policy and economic influence creating the iron curtain which divided East and West Europe.
  • Marshall Plan made to prevent France, Italy, and Great Britain from falling under Moscow's influence which would have had a largely negative effect on U.S. diplomatic and economic interests.
  • The plan was named after Truman's secretary of state, George C. Marshall.
  • Although the recovery plan did not specify limiting Soviet influence in Western Europe, that was clearly the goal. The plan wanted to do this by improving economic conditions.
  • The Plan helped America's economy because the aid would return to the United States by orders for American goods.
  • 16 countries took part in the Marshall Plan.
  • Plan meant to aid a well-developed but heavily damaged economy, not undeveloped economies.
  • Great Britain benefitted the most from this plan (more than U.S.) receiving $3 billion in grants and loans.
  • The Marshall plan was used as a model for the many U.S. foreign policy throughout the Cold War.
  • Marshall later awarded Nobel Peace Prize.
  • we are responsible because we are a world power. WE ARE SPIDER MAN!!!
  • If we help them out, we will be helped. If communism isn't spread there, communism will not reach here.

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THE BERLIN BLOCKADE AND AIRLIFT
  • 1948, western allies occupied parts of Germany and Berlin. They decided to join zones and create a democratic German nation. Berlin was surrounded by Soviet-occupied (communistic) portion of Germany.
  • June 1948, Soviet blockaded all routes to West Berlin. The blockade was meant to push the western allies out but ultimately failed because of the Berlin airlift which helped Berlin get through thee 11 month blockade.
  • In response to the blockade Western powers stopped all trade with East Germany.
  • Stalin called of blockade in 1949. Germany was dived into communistic East and democratic West.
  • The Berlin airlift supplied the city by airdrop. U.S. and British planes made 275,000 flights providing food, fuel, and equipment for Berlin residents.
  • The pilots who took part in the airlift experienced frequent harassment from Soviet fighter planes. 75 lives were lost in this process.
  • Millions of pounds of food are dropped to help the people of Berlin..operation Vittles-candy falling from the sky!!
  • Berlin is the hotbed of the Cold war... people want to get to West Berlin-leads to formation of Berlin Wall

NATO AND THE WARSAW PACT
NATO:**
  • *The North ATlantic Treaty organization was an anticommunist, mutual defense alliance of Nations from Europe and North America formed in 1948 as a response to alarm over communist control of eastern Europe
  • the NATO included the United States, Canada, and countries in western europe.
  • NATO members pledged to work toward reaching agreement with Warsaw Pact countries on arms reduction and to cooperate within the alliance in economic, scientific, and cultural areas
*The Warsaw Pact, the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe's pro-communist equivalent of NATO was created in response six years after the formation of NATO
  • The line is drawn.. huge alliances formed
  • It prevents attack. The US is changing its foregin policy! Gerorge Washington would not approve!
  • The US is focusing on Europe
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THE RED SCARE, THE ROSENBERGS, AND HUAC
  • The Red Scare was the "irrational but rampant" fear of communism throughout the United States (particularly twice during the 20th century). The first red scare was during 1919-1920 in WWI.
  • The second red scare during late 1940s and early 1950s in the Cold War where many Americans were worried about the spread of communism. Americans were worried, almost to the point of paranoia, about the takeover of a communistic government because of events like China's fall to communism, Rosenberg Trial, and McCarthy hearings.
  • The Rosenberg Trial, which took place in NY,March 6-29, 1951, was the accusation that Julius and Ethel Rosenberg committed espionage in wartime under the Espionage Act. Julius was an electrical engineer and worked for the U.S. Army Signal Corps, He was a former member of the Communist Party and was arrested for spying and providing Russia with secrets about the atomic bomb. "He was implicated by his business partner and brother-in-law, David Greenglass." Ethel was a homemaker and political activist who was charged with helping her husband with espionage. The Rosenbergs claimed innocence and Morton Sobell was their only defense witnesses. The three denied principal charges against them but took the Fifth when asked about associations with the Communist Party. The jury found all three guilty of espionage. Judge sentenced the Rosenbergs to death and Sobell to 30 years in prison. This event caused alarm amongst US citizens as they were shocked that people of their own nation would turn against them.
  • The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) was made to investigate communist activity in the United States during The Cold War. HUAC targeted the entertainment industry and was blacklisted by some actors, writers, directors, and producers. HUAC led to more committees similar to it. Six bills reported by HUAC became law, including Internal Security Act of 1950. Internal Security Act of 1950 which put restictions on communist organizations. HUAC recieved national attention because of Hollywood 10 who was a group of producers, screenwriters, and directors who refused to testify about their own activities and those of others. The result was an unofficial "blacklist" of people that studios would no longer hire. HUAC's blacklist destroyed the careers of many talented people in the entertainment industry.
COMMUNISM IN CHINA
  • September 1949 communists defeat the nationalists and China falls to communism-important because China is the biggest country in the world( as in most people)
  • Mao Zedong became the head of this new communist state
  • US tenisons rise- Americans shocked and viewed the takeover as a plan to rule the world
  • Communism spreading in Asia; communism now must be stopped from spreading in Asia as well as Europe
  • US government leaders, especially the State Department, are blamed for failing to stop the Communist revolution
  • American fear of communism grew
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THE KOREAN WAR

  • see page Korea 9 3 2 1 for notes and information about the Korean War *

MCCARTHYISM
  • Americans frustrated with indiscisive end of Korean War
  • Some politicians took advantage selfishly of this frustration
  • One such politician was Joseph Mccarthy (pictured at right), a republican senator from Wisconsin
  • He used the result of the Korean War to increase and intensify Americans' fear of communism
  • In 1950, McCarthy announced that he had a list of 205 officials from the state department that belonged to the communist party
  • the charges were never proven
  • thousands of careers were ruined after McCarthy's claim began a hunt for Cummunists
  • the term McCarthyism came to mean reckless, rampant charges against innnocent citizens
  • In spring of 1954 the Senate held nationally televised hearings
  • McCarthy accused the U.S. Army of "coddling communists"
  • The Army accused McCarthy and his staff of improper conduct, and McCarthy responded with unsupported charges against a lawyer representing the army
  • Americans were shocked by McCarthy's conduct
  • The Senate then issued a statement that criticized and he faded from the public eye.

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THE SPACE RACE
  • In 1957, the glogal superpowers of USA and the USSR engaged in a space race.
  • Both sides used the compettition to show off and demonstrate its technological power in engineering, education, and management.
  • The space race officially started when the USSR stunned the world by successfully launching the world's first space satellite Sputnik, pictured at left.
  • Because the USSR sent Sputink into orbit around earth, this menat they would be able to launch a missle that could reach the US
  • The US immediately poured billions of dollars of funding into space research, and American scientists raced to launch a satellite.
  • The USSR also achieved the first satellite (Luna 1) to escape earth's orbit and enter solar orbit (although it missed its target of the moon), and captured pictures of the moon's surface with Luna 2, and also captured pictures of the far side of the moon with Luna 3.
  • The USSR also achieved the first man to orbit the earth in space although the Us achived that same goal only one month later
  • After various other "firsts" achieved by the USSR, the US finally pulled ahead in the space race when Apollo 11 landed on the moon on July 20, 1969, and Neil Armstrong became the first man on the moon.
  • Summary of impact from ABC-Clio: The space race proved an energetic stimulus to both nations. The United States committed the funding necessary to win the race and, amid the unhappiness of the Vietnam War era, gave the nation a badly needed uplift. While the Soviets could never match the United States in funding, they still achieved a stunning number of space firsts. These, however, came at the expense of those mission essentials required to send a man to the moon.