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13days.jpg

PERIOD 1 / PERIOD 2 / PERIOD 3 / PERIOD 4 / PERIOD 6

October, 1962 - as close as the world will ever come to a nuclear World War III. What happened in those critical 13 days in October? Let's find out as you help President Kennedy make crucial decisions about the future of the United States ... and the world. In your group of advisors, log in to the chatroom for your period and cut and paste the material below into a new page on your Unit 8 notebook.




I need some help from my advisors. Soviet General Secretary Nikita Khrushchev has taken an open and oppositional stand against the United States since taking over from Joseph Stalin in the 1950s. The Soviets have been brutal in Hungary, launched an ICBM, and shot down a U-2 plane (sure it was taking control of military installations, but that’s a different story). Khrushchev has stated that he will “bury” the US (loosely translated), he has repeatedly interrupted the United Nations with his shouting, and he has even taken off his shoe and banged it on a desk in the UN. I am a new President, and obviously the Bay of Pigs incident doesn’t help my international standing with anyone, especially Khrushchev. I know that Castro and Khrushchev have a very freindly relationship, but we have recently had a decent relationship with Cuba.

DAYS 1-3 Tuesday, October 16 to Thursday, October 18
I have just seen pictures that show Russian missile launchers located on the island of Cuba, 90 miles from our border. The launchers could be fitted with nuclear warheads for offensive strikes on U.S. sites as far away as Montana. I need some help in deciding what we should do about these missiles in Cuba. I don’t think I can handle the pressure alone.
There are many possible ideas - an air strike, an invasion of mainland Cuba, a naval blockade, a diplomatic protest in the United Nations, and other ideas. I know this decision will be extremely crucial for the safety of Americans and the world in general. What benefits and challenges do the options present, and which option should I take?


OUR RESPONSE AND REASON
A naval blockade is our best option- it will force the to capitulate promptly without violence or great risk to soldiers. It will show the American people that you are against communism, and you you doing something to stop it. It is a safe option to get involved.

WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENS

A naval blockade was issued- a quarantine. Stop all naval ships from coming to Cuba and inspect all cargo.


DAY 4 - 7- Friday, October 19 to Monday, October 22
The Washington press corps has found out that something strange and important is going on. We are working well into the night, and I had to leave a planned trip to Chicago due to “the flu” (wink wink). I have placed the military on full alert, and I have notified our allies that there is some serious trouble brewing with the Soviets. Congress, which is on recess, has been alerted and party leaders are becoming aware of the situation. Nearly 200,000 American troops have been moved to Key West, Florida - the largest invasion force ever assembled on American soil. The news is going to break sooner or later, so I need some more advice. Do I tell the public of the evidence of Soviet missiles in Cuba and the possibility that U.S. ships will be enforcing a quarantine of Cuba? How much do I tell them? Or should I just stay quiet?

OUR RESPONSE AND REASON
We should release some information and not keep secrets from our supporters. The press will find out anyway, they always do. Although hysteria may occur, the president should not keep secrets about a situation of this magnitude.

WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENS
JFK tells the Soviet Union missile build up in Cuba and the nuclear supply in the Western Hemisphere. In order to stop the distribution of missiles, he announces a naval blockade. Any missile distribution, direct hit on Soviet Union. Some communism taken place by the United States.
Quarantine in place by October 25.






DAY 8 - 9 Tuesday, October 23 to Wednesday, October 24
We have put the quarantine into effect and told the Soviet Union of our intentions to stop any and all Soviet ships from entering Cuba. Cuba has bulked up its military along the coasts in preparation for a possible invasion and called the U.S. a bully at the United Nations. Moscow is accusing the U.S. of piracy. A Soviet ship is approaching the quarantine line and attempts to break through the quarantine. What should we do about the oncoming ship, and why?

OUR RESPONSE AND REASON
Shoot down, annihilate the ship immediately because we are no aware of their future plans. Because the Soviet Union is denying all information of the missiles, we shall attack immediately.

WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENS
The ship was allowed to go through. The, all of the Soviet ships stopped and turned around. US wins the "staredown."





We also have evidence that the Soviets are installing actual weapons that will be able to fire on the U.S. in a matter of days. My decision is now a matter of peace or war. Should I give the order to fire weapons on the existing missile sites, set an ultimatum for removal of the missiles, destroy Soviet ships in the Caribbean, send troops to Cuba, move nuclear subs toward the USSR, or attempt any further means of peaceful diplomacy? I need some help, EXCOMM!

OUR RESPONSE AND REASON



WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENS
JFK gives an ultimatum to crushev saying get rid of the missles or else we will invade Cuba.



DAY 10-12- Thursday, October 25 to Saturday, October 27
Proceedings are becoming heated at the United Nations. Our delegate to the UN has openly challenged the Soviet Union about the missiles, without getting a desired response. Tensions remain high between the two countries. Nikita Khrushchev and the Soviets have made two offers - the first is to remove the missiles from Cuba in exchange for no American invasion of Cuba, and the second demands U.S. removal of missiles from Turkey in return for the removal of Soviet missiles from Cuba. What do you do in this situation - accept either of the offers, make a counter offer, or demand immediate removal or else troops and weapons will be deployed?

OUR RESPONSE AND REASON
xxxxxxxxxxxx



WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENS
Kenedy agrees to first message, privately agrees to second.

Crisis ends when missles are removed.




DAY 13 - Sunday, October 28
It’s over! Thanks for your help. We were close to a big problem, weren’t we? Hopefully we all learned something about decision making and not jumping to do something without considering all options! What did we learn from this crisis?